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Category: Toxicology

Acid base tutorial

This tutorial helps you uncover acid base disorders that you may see in your patients. These are metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and…

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy explained

Introduction Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves the use of hyperbaric chambers, large cylindrical structures made of steel that can be pressurized…

Prevention and management of hepatic encephalopathy

Mechanism of hepatic encephalopathy Several theories regarding the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) exist. The leading driver of HE appears to…

Causes of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, at its core, is a problem of insulin deficiency. Many aetiologies, from genetic, to autoimmune, to drugs and infections, can…

Causes of shock

The causes of shock can be summed up with the SHOCKED mnemonic: Septic Hypovolemic Obstructive Cardiogenic Kinds that are rare Endocrinological…

Indications for dialysis in ASA overdose

In the case of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA or Aspirin) overdose, dialysis should be strongly considered under the following circumstances: Neurological…

The Hs and Ts

During a cardiac arrest, this mnemonic helps you think through potential etiologies. In some cases, unless the underlying cause of the cardiac…

Indications for dialysis in acute renal failure (AEIOU)

The indications for hemodialysis (HD) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) can be grossly summed up with the mnemonic…

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