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Category: Nephrology

Acid base tutorial

This tutorial helps you uncover acid base disorders that you may see in your patients. These are metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and…

Causes of high ferritin

Here are the differential diagnosis and aetiologies of hyperferritinemia (high ferritin). In the acute setting, infection and malignancy are by…

Adverse reactions to IVIG infusion

Adverse reactions are seen in up to 20% of patients who receive IVIG. These include: Phlogistic Chills Fever Nausea Vomiting…

Interpretation of urine sodium

The normal range for urine sodium is about 40 to 220 mmol/L. A low urine sodium is anything less than…

Indications for dialysis in ASA overdose

In the case of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA or Aspirin) overdose, dialysis should be strongly considered under the following circumstances: Neurological…

Types of central venous and dialysis catheters

Central venous catheters (CVCs) Central venous catheters are typically inserted at the neck (right or left interior jugular vein), upper…

Assessment of volume status with ultrasound

To assess a patient’s intravascular volume status with ultrasound, use a cardiac probe with depth set to at least 18…

Indications for dialysis in acute renal failure (AEIOU)

The indications for hemodialysis (HD) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) can be grossly summed up with the mnemonic…

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