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Category: Infectious disease

The definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined and diagnosed by the following criteria, which has been promulgated or endorsed by the European…

Diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)

Patients who exhibit five or more of the following findings meet the diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Clinical findings Fever ≥…

Causes of high ferritin

Here are the differential diagnosis and aetiologies of hyperferritinemia (high ferritin). In the acute setting, infection and malignancy are by…

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy explained

Introduction Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves the use of hyperbaric chambers, large cylindrical structures made of steel that can be pressurized…

Treatment duration of pulmonary tuberculosis

Disclaimer: tuberculosis is actually a very complicated disease to treat. If patient care decision making is involved, you should consult the ISDA…

Sensitivity and specificity of various imaging modalities in detecting osteomyelitis

Several modalities including plain x-ray radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), white blood cell (WBC) scans, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance…

Adverse reactions to IVIG infusion

Adverse reactions are seen in up to 20% of patients who receive IVIG. These include: Phlogistic Chills Fever Nausea Vomiting…

Causes of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, at its core, is a problem of insulin deficiency. Many aetiologies, from genetic, to autoimmune, to drugs and infections, can…

Likelihood of infective endocarditis if the transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is negative

What is the likelihood that a patient actually has infective endocarditis if their transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is negative? According to…

Causes of shock

The causes of shock can be summed up with the SHOCKED mnemonic: Septic Hypovolemic Obstructive Cardiogenic Kinds that are rare Endocrinological…

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