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Category: Critical care

Acid base tutorial

This tutorial helps you uncover acid base disorders that you may see in your patients. These are metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and…

The definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined and diagnosed by the following criteria, which has been promulgated or endorsed by the European…

Diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)

Patients who exhibit five or more of the following findings meet the diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Clinical findings Fever ≥…

Causes of high ferritin

Here are the differential diagnosis and aetiologies of hyperferritinemia (high ferritin). In the acute setting, infection and malignancy are by…

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy explained

Introduction Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves the use of hyperbaric chambers, large cylindrical structures made of steel that can be pressurized…

Common ventilator settings used in the ICU

These are the most commonly used ventilator modes or settings that you may encounter in the intensive care unit. Assist…

Prevention and management of hepatic encephalopathy

Mechanism of hepatic encephalopathy Several theories regarding the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) exist. The leading driver of HE appears to…

Signs of acute congestive heart failure on chest x-ray and clinical examination

Here are the most telling signs of acute congestive heart failure on chest x-ray and clinical examination. Chest x-ray Pulmonary venous…

Indications for surgery in aortic stenosis

Valve replacement surgery should be strongly considered for patients with aortic stenosis who meet any one of the following criteria:…

Acute mechanical complications of myocardial infarctions (MIs)

The acute mechanical complications of myocardial infarctions (MIs), whether they’d be NSTEMIs or STEMIs, include: Right ventricle infarction Cardiac tamponade Free wall…

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