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Category: Cardiology

Causes of shock

The causes of shock can be summed up with the SHOCKED mnemonic: Septic Hypovolemic Obstructive Cardiogenic Kinds that are rare Endocrinological…

Indications for valve replacement surgery in infective endocarditis (IE)

Left-sided native valve infective endocarditis Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) that affects the native mitral or aortic valve who meet any…

The diagnostic criteria of NSTEMI

An NSTEMI can be diagnosed when the following critera are met: Rise in serum troponin Presence of angina or angina…

The diagnostic criteria of STEMI

Diagnostic criteria A STEMI can be diagnosed if there is angina or troponin rise with: ST elevation in 2 or…

Types of central venous and dialysis catheters

Central venous catheters (CVCs) Central venous catheters are typically inserted at the neck (right or left interior jugular vein), upper…

The Hs and Ts

During a cardiac arrest, this mnemonic helps you think through potential etiologies. In some cases, unless the underlying cause of the cardiac…

Assessment of volume status with ultrasound

To assess a patient’s intravascular volume status with ultrasound, use a cardiac probe with depth set to at least 18…

Prevalence of pulmonary embolism in COPD exarcebation

Studies have demonstrated that about 30% of patients who present with COPD exacerbation also have a concomitant pulmonary embolism (PE). Therefore…

Six deadly causes of chest pain

While there are many causes of chest pain, remember these six: Myocardial infarction Aortic dissection Cardiac tamponade Pulmonary embolism Tension…

The physiology of pulsus paradoxus

Definition of pulsus paradoxus A drop in systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 10 mmHg during inspiration Causes of…

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