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Category: Cardiology

The definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined and diagnosed by the following criteria, which has been promulgated or endorsed by the European…

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy explained

Introduction Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves the use of hyperbaric chambers, large cylindrical structures made of steel that can be pressurized…

Signs of acute congestive heart failure on chest x-ray and clinical examination

Here are the most telling signs of acute congestive heart failure on chest x-ray and clinical examination. Chest x-ray Pulmonary venous…

Severity grading of aortic stenosis

The severity grading of aortic stenosis is determined with echocardiography. While the aortic valve area is a prominent indicator of aortic…

Indications for surgery in aortic stenosis

Valve replacement surgery should be strongly considered for patients with aortic stenosis who meet any one of the following criteria:…

Criteria for orthostatic hypotension

Criteria for orthostatic hypotension (patient must fulfill at least one criteria): 30 BPM drop in heart rate 20 mmHg drop…

Cardiac risk factors

Non-modifiable risk factors Age Male Genetics Ethnicity (Indian, East Indian) Family history (1º male < 55, 1º female < 65)…

Acute mechanical complications of myocardial infarctions (MIs)

The acute mechanical complications of myocardial infarctions (MIs), whether they’d be NSTEMIs or STEMIs, include: Right ventricle infarction Cardiac tamponade Free wall…

Likelihood of infective endocarditis if the transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is negative

What is the likelihood that a patient actually has infective endocarditis if their transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is negative? According to…

Pressors and inotropes in critical care

Inotropic agents Norepinephrine Brand names: Levophed Usual dose: 0 to 50 mcg/min IV (adults). Doses larger than 50 mcg/min can be given…

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